Payment Environmental Services on WaterKuliah Singkat RMI, 27 Februari 2014

800×600

Normal
0

false
false
false

IN
X-NONE
X-NONE

MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin:0cm;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;}

RMI’s Short Lecture, 27th February 2014

v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

800×600

Normal
0
false

false
false
false

IN
X-NONE
X-NONE

MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin:0cm;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;}

Located in RMI’s new office (Bogor Baru Blok C1 / 12 A), we discussed the “Payment Environmental Services(PES) on Water“. This topic is in line with the study of inventory of water resources in the Halimun Salak conducted in collaboration with the Partnership (Kemitraan), PJLK2HL and BTNGHS. This study is expected for verifying the implementation PERMENHUT No. P.64/Menhut-II/2013 which is set on December 3, 2013 on the Use of Water and Water for Energy at Wildlife, National Parks, Forest Parks and Nature Park. Resource person who spoke at this time was Prof. Hariadi Kartodihardjo (Department of Forest Management at IPB). Participants who attended besides RMI team, there are from FWI (Forest Watch Indonesia) and LIPI KRC (Cibodas Botanical Garden).

Mr. Hariadi explained that when he reading P64/2013, actually water as object handling samewith the concession arrangement, indicated that there is a permition letter that must be taken. In fact, water is categorized as high exclusion cost; any action will affect others such as if we make a well at our house, it could make our neighborsface shortage of water. In addition there is a high principle of non-excludability means that without permition anyone could take advantage of the water as well.

v\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
o\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
w\:* {behavior:url(#default#VML);}
.shape {behavior:url(#default#VML);}

Normal
0
false

false
false
false

IN
X-NONE
X-NONE

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin-top:0cm;
mso-para-margin-right:0cm;
mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt;
mso-para-margin-left:0cm;
line-height:115%;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:11.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;
mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri;
mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin;
mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri;
mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;
mso-fareast-language:EN-US;}

Bertempat di kantor baru RMI (Perumahan Bogor Baru Blok C1 / 12 A), Kuliah Singkat edisi bulan Februari 2014 membahas tentang “Model Pembayaran/Imbal Jasa Lingkungan Air”. Topik ini sejalan dengan kegiatan studi tentang inventarisasi sumber daya air di kawasan Halimun Salak yang dilakukan RMI bekerjasama dengan Kemitraan, PJLK2HL dan BTNGHS. Studi ini diharapkan sebagai alat verifikasi implementasi Permenhut Nomor P.64/Menhut-II/2013 yang ditetapkan pada tanggal 3 Desember 2013 tentang Pemanfaatan Air dan Energi Air di Suaka Margasatwa, Taman Nasional, Taman Hutan Raya dan Taman Wisata Alam. Narasumber pada Kuliah Singkat kali ini yaitu Prof. Hariadi Kartodihardjo (Departeman Manajemen Hutan IPB). Peserta yang hadir selain tim RMI, ada dari FWI (Forest Watch Indonesia) dan LIPI KRC.

2According to Mr. Hariadi, characteristic of water resources becomes the main thing, so on the RMI’s study needed to get geology and hydrology map. Also needs to be agreed how to inventory and which one of the concept which is used, it should be clear. Perceptions related P64/2013 from national park (TNGHS) is excavated to do because water is the illegality of public / common goods, as well as public perception on water.

PES scheme of Kulon Progo watershed (2008) can give an idea about the relationship between providers and beneficiaries, as well as the relationship between the actors. There are 3 components of PES should clearly define; providers, service users, and compensatory mechanisms that ensure fairness of distribution. Relationships between actors within PES implies institutional actors which is formed transactional relationship in the hierarchy system (confidence giver and receiver of trust), non-excludable service providers need incentives, guarantees continuity of service requires clarity of property rights and the need of organizations to execute an agreement.

Implications in the development of PES is equivalence between the information needs to be pursued, the agreement is able to balance the rewards and costs of the parties, the transaction costs (negotiation, implementation, monitoring and evaluation, conflict resolution) should be minimized, there is no difference in the nature of conflict in the interests of a third party involvement, transparency, accountability and fairness distribution of benefits. For the determination of the cost, the basic payment can be used is per liter of water and shared perception between the two parties.

Rojak (RMI) described the experience from the field, when RMI conducted other activities in collaboration between UI and WASPOLA that the community perception on water in Kampung Babakan Ciomas is ‘cai leungit leungit nyawa‘, meaning that the community perceives the importance of water for their lives. Then together with the community, building water facilities because of the water which is used for daily need comes from rice field and when dry season coming then water is decrease. The results of calculation of the water needs at Babakan Ciomas Hamletis about 60 liters / person and community agreed to restore 4 ha of forest through set up the local rules such as maintaining forests, collecting money for maintaining the water networks, etc.

3Respons fromMr. Hariadi that case studyfrom the field as a real example for building a PES scheme. It should be ​​clear how the government’s perception related with the charge which is established by community. There is finding from Mr. Bramantyo about the distribution of benefits in Banten, which is community as service providers and company as users; 70 % of funds received are allocated for public use and 28 % for the benefit of individuals.It can be inferred if the people still prioritizing the village interest for development than self-interest.


Sri Astutik (LIPI – KRC) said that
it needed to identify how far (radius) area of ​​forest which is guaranteed through the supply of water. The cost of production can be identified by the water absorption ability from forests. In addition there is upstream communities’ contribution to care for the forest so that the ability of forests to absorb water could be optimal; it must be taken into account in the price of water services. According to Mr. Hariadi that government policy (P64/2013) will implement, although still need some supporting data (such as geological data), then needed the precautionary principle and sensitive to justice. Basic property rights of this regulation should be obvious, then there must be a review point from other parties. To ensure that input on this P64 can be implemented, we could work together with KPK (the Commission for Eradicating Corruption) by giving time to study together minimal for a month.  

Based on the findings that primary forest products are timber although its real value is only 5 %, but if the wood is missing then the other 95% will also be lost. Then the good example for PESin Indonesia can be seen in Lombok, which are groups of people as providers and beneficiaries are companies (PDAM/Water State-owned Company). They include charge that stated in the accounts (water bills) for conservation activities of water resources. In the closing, Mr. Hariadi asserts that the goal of P64/2013 supposed to protect the water resources then the regulation substance must lead for it.

800×600

Normal
0

false
false
false

IN
X-NONE
X-NONE

MicrosoftInternetExplorer4

/* Style Definitions */
table.MsoNormalTable
{mso-style-name:”Table Normal”;
mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0;
mso-tstyle-colband-size:0;
mso-style-noshow:yes;
mso-style-priority:99;
mso-style-parent:””;
mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt;
mso-para-margin:0cm;
mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt;
mso-pagination:widow-orphan;
font-size:10.0pt;
font-family:”Calibri”,”sans-serif”;}
Written by: Ratnasari

(Knowledge Management Division at RMI)

         

Pak Hariadi menjelaskan bahwa ketika membaca P64/2013 ini sebetulnya sama seperti pengaturan HPH, ada bentuk ijin yang harus diurus. Padahal soal air termasuk high exclusion cost, jika ada tindakan akan mempengaruhi orang lain seperti ketika membuat sumur bisa jadi tetangga kita menjadi kekurangan air. Selain itu ada prinsip non excludability tinggi artinya yang tidak dapat ijin nyatanya bisa memanfaatkan air juga.

Menurut Pak Hariadi, karakteristik sumber daya air menjadi hal utama, maka dalam studi RMI ini dibutuhkan peta geologi dan hidrologi kawasan. Selain itu perlu disepakati untuk inventarisasi menggunakan konsep yang mana dan arahannya juga harus jelas. Persepsi pihak TNGHS terkait P64/2013 harus digali kaitannya dengan daya ilegalitas air karena air adalah public/common goods, demikian juga persepsi masyarakat terhadap air.

Skema PES DAS Kulon Progo (2008) bisa memberi gambaran hubungan antara penyedia dan penerima manfaat, juga hubungan antar aktornya. Ada 3 komponen PES yaitu jasa yang diperjanjikan terdefinisi dengan jelas, penyedia dan pengguna jasa, mekanisme kompensasi yang menjamin keadilan distribusi. Hubungan antar aktor dalam PES memberikan implikasi kelembagaan yaitu hubungan transaksional yang memposisikan aktor dalam hirarki (pemberi kepercayaan dan penerima kepercayaan), penyedia jasa non-exludable perlu insentif, jaminan keberlangsungan jasa dan jalinan kontrak memerlukan kejelasan hak-hak kepemilikan dan perlu organisasi untuk menjalankan kesepakatan dan penjamin hak-hak.  

Implikasi dalam pengembangan PES yaitu kesepadanan informasi antar pihak perlu diupayakan, kontrak mampu menyeimbangkan reward dan costs para pihak, biaya transaksi (negosiasi, pelaksanaan, monev, resolusi konflik) harus dapat diminimalkan, tidak ada perbedaan kepentingan yang bersifat konflik pada pelibatan pihak ketiga, transparansi, akuntabilitas dan keadilan pendistribusian manfaat. Untuk penentuan biaya, dasar pembayarannya bisa per liter air yang digunakan dan persepsi yang sama antar dua pihak.  

Rojak (RMI) menceritakan pengalaman di lapangan, ketika RMI melakukan kegiatan bekerjasama antara lain dengan UI dan Waspola bahwa persepsi masyarakat tentang air di Kampung Babakan Ciomas – Lebak yakni ‘leungit cai leungit nyawa’, artinya masyarakat memandang pentingnya air bagi kehidupan mereka. Kemudian bersama masyarakat membangun sarana air di sana karena air yang digunakan sehari-hari berasal dari air sawah dan ketika musim kemarau masyarakat kekurangan air. Hasil perhitungan air bahwa kebutuhan air Kampung Babakan Ciomasn dulu sekitar 60 liter/jiwa dan masyarakat pun melakukan restorasi hutan 4 ha dengan menyepakati aturan lokal seperti menjaga hutan, iuran untuk perawatan jaringan air, dll.

Tanggapan Pak Hariadi bahwa soal kasuistik di lapangan seperti itu adalah contoh konkret membangun skema PES. Perlu diperjelas bagaimana persepsi pemerintah soal tarif yang dibangun masyarakat. Ada informasi dari Pak Bramantyo bahwa distribusi manfaat di Banten, dengan penyedia jasa adalah masyarakat dan pemanfaat jasanya adalah perusahaan ternyata 70% dana yang diterima dialokasikan untuk kepentingan umum dan 28% untuk kepentingan perorangan maka dapat disimpulkan jika masyarakat di sana masih mengutamakan kemajuan desa / kampungnya dibandingkan kepentingan diri sendiri.

Sri Astutik (LIPI-KRC) menyampaikan bahwa perlu mengidentifikasi seberapa jauh (radius) kawasan yang dijamin oleh kawasan hutan dalam menyediakan air. Biaya produksi bisa diidentifikasi dari kemampuan penyerapan air oleh kawasan hutan. Selain itu ada andil masyarakat hulu untuk merawat hutan sehingga kemampuan hutan dalam menyerap air menjadi optimal, maka mesti diperhitungkan dalam harga jasa air. Menurut Pak Hariadi bahwa kecenderungannya kebijakan (P64/2013) akan tetap jalan walaupun belum utuh (misalnya data geologi belum ada dst) maka butuh prinsip kehati-hatian dan sensitif terhadap keadilan. Dasar property rights dari P64 ini harus jelas, maka harus ada point review dari pihak lain. Untuk memastikan masukan atas P64 ini bisa dilaksanakan bisa melalui KPK dengan cara memberi waktu selama satu bulan untuk mengkaji bersama. 

Berdasarkan hasil penelitian bahwa primary product hutan adalah kayu walaupun nilai riilnya hanya 5%, tapi jika kayu ini hilang maka yang 95% lainnya juga akan hilang. Lalu terkait dengan contoh PES yang sudah berjalan cukup baik untuk di Indonesia bisa lihat di Lombok, dimana penyedia manfaat adalah kelompok masyarakat dan penerima manfaat adalah perusahaan (PDAM). Contoh riilnya dalam rekening air yang dibayarkan sudah ada penambahan yang disepakati untuk kegiatan konservasi sumber air. Dalam penutupnya, Pak Hariadi menegaskan bahwa tujuan (cita-citanya) P64/2013 mestinya untuk melindungi sumber daya air sehingga substansi di dalamnya mesti mengarah ke sana.

Ditulis Oleh: Ratnasari

(Divisi Pengelolaan Pengetahuan RMI)

You may also like...