Improving Gender Equality on Land and Natural Resources GovernanceWujudkan Tata Kelola Agraria yang Berkeadilan Jender

RMI-the Indonesian Institute for Forest and Environment in collaboration with the International Land Coalition and Global Land Tool Network organised a training titled “Gender Equality on Land and Natural Resources Governance”. This training was held on February 25th to March 3rd 2015 and was aimed for female community organisers. Thirteen young women who participated in this training were based in Palu, Lombok, Blitar, Jember, Pangandaran, Ciamis, Bogor, Bengkulu and Padang.

Ratnasari, the training coordinator, explained that the objectives of the training were to increase the understanding of the participants that gender equality on land and natural resource governance is an important aspect because both women and men are impacted by decisions made in relation to the natural resource management. This is the reason why the perspectives from men and women should be included on the natural resource and land governance.

Gender and Religion was one of the topics being discussed. Iklilah Muzayyanah[1], the resource person, explained that religion (in this case it was Islam being used as an example) has put women and men equal. “In Islam, there are two requirements to be a leader: responsibility and capability. Women or men, when any of them can fulfill these requirements, then she or he can be a leader”. Iklilah then mentioned situations in which Islam put women and men in equal positions.

RMI-the Indonesian Institute for Forest and Environment, bekerjasama dengan International Land Coalition dan Global Land Tool Network mengadakan pelatihan “Tata Kelola Agraria dan Sumberdaya Alam yang Berkeadilan Jender”. Kegiatan yang dilaksanakan pada 25 Februari-3 Maret 2015 ini dikhususkan bagi para community organizer perempuan. 13 peserta pelatihan berasal dari berbagai organisasi, dari berbagai daerah, diantaranya Palu, Lombok, Blitar, Jember, Pangandaran, Ciamis, Bogor, Bengkulu dan Padang.

Ratnasari, koordinator kegiatan, menjelaskan, tujuan dari pelatihan ini untuk memberikan pemahaman bahwa dalam pengelolaan sumber daya alam dan tata kelola agraria yang berkeadilan jender, merupakan suatu hal yang penting karena baik perempuan maupun laki-laki berperan dan mengalami dampak dari suatu keputusan terkait pengelolaan sumberdaya alam. Hal ini membuat perspektif dari perempuan maupun laki-laki perlu dimasukkan dalam tata kelola agraria dan sumberdaya alam.

Materi “Jender dan Agama”, yang disampaikan oleh Iklilah Muzayyanah, menjelaskan bagaimana agama (dalam penjelasan ini menggunakan agama islam sebagai contoh) telah menempatkan perempuan dan laki-laki dengan setara. “Dalam Islam, untuk menjadi pemimpin, syaratnya ada dua. Tanggung Jawab dan mampu. Baik perempuan atau laki-laki, saat sudah memenuhi dua syarat tersebut, bisa jadi pemimpin”, Iklilah memberikan contoh bagaimana islam menempatkan posisi yang setara antara perempuan dan laki-laki.

Naning, a participant from Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria coordination area of East Java said that the session on Gender and Religion “should have been longer therefore we could have discussed more verses, especially about verses that have tendencies to be interpreted to support patriarchy in social structure”.

The link between gender, human rights and politics was explained in depth by Shelly Adelina[2]. In this session, she mentioned TGthat up to now, political system in Indonesia, including parties, still proceed the injustice to women. In line with Iklilah, Shelly mentioned that quality should become the main criteria when a woman decide to enter political arena. However, the same criteria often lacking and ignored in cases where men intend to join the politics. Women and men should be equal, not only in qualities, but also in quantities, as she added.

All the sessions that were delivered in this training used appreciative inquiry as well as fun learning methods. Indra N Hatasura as a main facilitator used various methods such as the ‘Spider Web’ game to identify, understand and define problems. In this training, participants were also undergone a session where they were made to understand themselves. This session is made not only to build trust among the participants but also to understand their own style of learning. “Learning should be made fun, so that we are willing to do it” as Indra said.

TG1Gender analysis methods were provided in two sessions by two different resource persons. Nia Ramdhaniaty[3] elaborated the gender analysis methods in the context of land and natural resources governance. By clustering the participants based on their working sites (i.e. Java, Sumatera, Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara regions) Nia guided the participants to conduct a gender analysis using Social Relations Framework. This framework is the most frequent one being used as gender analysis tools in RMI’s works. In another session of gender analysis tools, Shelly Adelina also explained about several tools to do it. She explained deeply about Harvard Methods.

In the last two days of the training, the participants conducted a field work where they were provided opportunities to apply the knowledge and tools that they have gained in the last 5 days. The field work was conducted in two villages in Nanggung Sub-district, Bogor District. In this location, about 2,000 farmers are now struggling to gain the rights to access an ex-plantation area of PT. Hevea Indonesia which covers 310 hectares of land. The concession rights of this plantation company has ended on 31 December 2013.

In this field work, data that they collected through interviews and focus group discussions on women and men (including girls and boys) were further analysed using the tools that they had learned in theory for days. From the analyses, it was discovered that women and men in this location had access to land and employment. However, the control over land, employment, education and assets were generally owned by men. Culture that interwoven with the interpretation of their religion that maintain patriarchy structure was clearly seen in this community. An example of this situation was noted when both women and men thought that women could not make decisions as good as men. The trainees saw that low education level was a cause of this view. Talking with young people groups, two groups of the trainees noticed that the number of girls who dropped out from school were 4 times higher than the boys in the same situation.

On the other hand, the training participants saw an interesting situation in children and youth farmers groups. They found that equality has taken place in these groups which can be seen from the equal opportunities for any sex to take part in organisational roles or field works. Any of the groups members allow to perform any specific functions and tasks as long as they have the commitment to do it.

The analysis results then were discussed with the community members including farmers groups as well as the Village Authority to obtain clarification, to confirmation and to provide space to give and obtain recommendation or feedbacks on both sides (i.e. the presenters and the presentees). Having discussed all about gender equality on land and natural resource governance, a request came from the community group to conduct similar of training wrapped in more domestic discourse to build better understanding between all family members in their kampung which firstly aimed for men instead of women.

“Sanajan urang geus kolot, embung diheurasan ku batur mah. Lamun didieu dipelakan kalapa sawit, aing rek dahar naon didieu?” (Eventhough I am old, I do not accept any misconduct applied to me by other parties. If they plan to have palmoil trees, then what will we eat?”)

Siti- Petani Nanggung, Bogor- berjuang melawan dominasi HGU

(Gender Training, 2015)

“Delete the impoverishment of women farmers! Give them space in accessing and controlling the natural resource management to achieve land and natural resource management that are just and sustainable.”

Kiki Amelia-Yayasan Merah Putih-Sulawesi Tengah

(Gender Training, 2015)

“Sumber daya alam itu direbut, bukan diminta, apalagi menungu untuk diberi!”

Natural resources should be fight for, not being asked for, moreover to be waited for!”

Yamini-Bina Desa Sadajiwa-Jember

(Gender Training, 2015)

These statements are coming from women in gender training on land governance, which illustrate women’s hope, dream and demand to manifest equality, justice and sovereignty of women on land and natural resources which have been relevant for years, up to today on International Women’s Day.

Selamat Hari Perempuan Sedunia 2015!

 


[1] Chief of Gender Research of the University of Indonesia

[2] Lecturer on Gender Studies Programme of the University of Indonesia

[3] Executive Director of RMI-the Indonesian Institute for Forest and Environment

By: Mardha Tillah & Fahmi Rahman

(Campaign & Advocaty Division)

Naning, peserta dari Konsorsium Pembaruan Agraria koordinasi wilayah Jawa Timur mengatakan bahwa sesi ini “perlu diperpanjang agar kita benar-benar melakukan kajian tidak hanya 1-2-3 ayat, [namun] menambah kajian-kajian [ayat] yang tafsirnya itu lebih dimaknai [untuk mendukung] patriarki”.

Keterkaitan antara jender, hak asasi manusia dan politik dijelaskan oleh Shelly Adelina. Dalam paparannya, dia menjelaskan bahwa sampai saat ini sistem politik di Indonesia, termasuk partai, masih banyak melakukan ketidak-setaraan terhadap perempuan. Kualitas harus menjadi syarat utama bagi perempuan saat akan memasuki dunia politik, namun hal tersebut cenderung diabaikan saat laki-laki yang menjadi pemeran dalam panggung politik. Perempuan dan laki-laki harus setara, bukan hanya kualitas, namun juga kuantitas, ujarnya.

TGDalam setiap sesi, metode pelatihan yang digunakan cukup beragam. Indra N Hatasura, fasilitator, mengajak peserta bermain “jaring laba-laba” untuk mengenal, memahami dan mengurai suatu masalah. Juga dalam memahami karakteristik diri, peserta diajak berkreasi dengan cuplikan-cuplikan yang ada di koran untuk mendeskripsikan diri mereka masing-masing. “Belajar itu harus menyenangkan, supaya kita mau melakukan” kata Indra.

Metode analisis jender, disampaikan oleh dua narasumber berbeda, dalam dua sesi. Nia Ramdhaniaty memaparkan bagaimana analisis jender ini dilakukan dalam program-program yang dilakukan RMI.

Shelly Adelina, juga menjelaskan beberapa alat yang bisa dipakai dalam melakukan analisis jender. Salah satu yang sering dipakai yaitu Harvard.

TG1Pada dua hari terakhir, peserta pelatihan melakukan praktek lapangan di dua desa di Kecamatan Nanggung Kabupaten Bogor. Di lokasi ini, sejumlah 2.000 petani sedang berjuang mendapatkan hak pengelolaan lahan ex-HGU PT. Hevea Indonesia seluas 310 hektar yang telah berakhir ijinnya pada 31 Desember 2013.

Dengan menggunakan metode analisis jender yang telah didapat pada hari-hari sebelumnya, data hasil wawancara dan focus group discussion terhadap perempuan dan laki-laki (termasuk anak perempuan dan anak laki-laki), didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa perempuan dan laki-laki di lokasi ini sama-sama memiliki akses kepada lahan dan ketenagakerjaan. Namun kontrol atau kuasa atas tanah, ketenagakerjaan, pendidikan dan aset umumnya dimiliki oleh laki-laki. Budaya dan pemahaman terhadap agama yang melanggengkan kekuasaan laki-laki atas perempuan juga terlihat sangat mengakar. Hal ini terlihat dari rasa ketidakmampuan perempuan saat ditanyakan tentang peran mereka untuk mengambil keputusan dibandingkan laki-laki. Analisis peserta menghubungkan ketidakmampuan perempuan dalam pengambilan keputusan ini dengan rendahnya tingkat pendidikan. Terbukti bahwa dari kegiatan ini, rasio putus sekolah anak laki-laki dan perempuan adalah 1:4.

Di sisi lain, fakta yang menarik adalah ditemukannya kesetaraan peran pada kelompok tani remaja antara peran laki-laki dan perempuan. Tidak seperti kelompok dewasa, anak-anak dan remaja usia 9-16 tahun yang mengorganisir diri dalam sektor pertanian ini tidak membeda-bedakan jenis kelamin dalam melakukan kegiatan dan peran serta tanggungjawab dalam aktivitas organisasi.

Hasil analisis tersebut disampaikan dalam forum diskusi bersama masyarakat untuk menjadi bahan klarifikasi, konfirmasi dan rekomendasi. Sesudah mendengarkan pemaparan dari peserta pelatihan dan diskusi, salah satu permintaan yang muncul dari kelompok masyarakat yang saat itu hadir yang umumnya laki-laki adalah diadakannya pelatihan serupa terutama kepada laki-laki.

Oleh : Mardha Tillah & Fahmi Rahman

(Divisi Kampanye & Advokasi RMI)

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